Saudi Arabia funding of Donald Trump and Jared Kushner – the Public Investment Fund (PIF) and LIV Golf

Mohammed bin Salman al Saud

Crown Prince, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Defense of Saudi Arabia (aka MBS)

Mohammed bin Salman Saudi Arabia Donald Trump March 2017
  • May 2017Trump’s first foreign visit as president was to Saudi Arabia
  • October 2017 – in late October Kushner made an unannounced trip and saw MBS
  • November 2017– shortly after Kushner’s visit MBS led an anti-corruption purge and arrested 200 people
  • November 2017 – a close aide to MBS ordered Yasir Al-Rumayyan to transfer 20 companies to PIF including charter jet company Sky Prime Aviation allegedly used in Jamal Khashoggi murder
  • U.S. intelligence agencies concluded MBS approved Khashoggi murder
Donald Trump
3+ Saudi Public Investment Fund (PIF) Sponsored Tournaments ($ paid to Trump unknown)
Donald Trump Yasir Al-Rumayyan
Donald Trump and Yasir al-Rumayyan
LIV Golf Tournament
Aramco Team Series
Trump National Golf Club

Bedminster, NJ – October 2022

LIV Golf October season finale

Trump Golf Links at Ferry Point

Bronx, NY – October 2022

Aramco Team Series, an event on the Ladies European Tour

Trump National Doral Miami

Miami, FL – August 2022

LIV Golf Invitational Series

Trump National Golf Club Washington DC

Sterling, VA – May 2023

More info

Trump recently visited Trump National in DC reportedly to plan May 2023 LIV golf event. That same morning Kushner attended one year commemoration of Abraham Accords in DC with UAE Ambassador to the U.S. Yousef Al Otaiba and others.

Jared Kushner
$2 billion+ from Saudi Public Investment Fund
Kushern and Mohammed bin Salman (MBS)
A Fin Management LLC

Large advisor firm that manages two Affinity funds

More info

CRD Number: 315482

SEC file number 801-122021

Company # M21000001979

Inc 18 Feb 2021, Florida

Cassidy Luna – Chairman

Lauren Key – officer

Branch of A Fin Management LLC Delaware

Located in Sunny Isles Beach, FL

Affinity Partners Parallel Fund I LP


invested from two clients

Affinity Partners Fund I LP

$25,507,130 invested
Saudi Arabia
Human Rights Issues

Many stories on the LIV Golf league have focused on human rights issues and how Saudi Arabia is using sports to launder its reputation through sports-washing.

  • Saudi Arabia accused of human rights abuses including repression of women and LBGTQ+ rights
  • Role in 9/11 in which 15 of 19 al Qaeda terrorists involved in hijaking planes were Saudi Nationals
  • 2018 murder of Washington Post columnist and U.S. resident Jamal Khashoggi
Jamal Khashoggi
Jamal Khashoggi
Yasir Al-Rumayyan
Yasir Al-Rumayyan

Non-executive Chairman and Governor PIF

Chairman Aramco

Chairman Golf Saudi

Chairman Newcastle

Saudi Arabia Public Investment Fund (PIF)

$620 billion (in USD)

(as of January 2022)

MBS is Chairman of the Public Investment Fund

More info

  • PIF has invested at least $3 billion into LIV Golf ($1.169 billion share capital in LIV Golf Investments Ltd in Jersey and another $2 billion announced in May 2022)
  • PIF has invested over $2 billion in Jared Kushner’s Affinity Partners Fund
  • It is not known how much LIV has paid for 3+ golf tournaments at Donald Trump’s golf properties
Aramco Team Series (ATS)

 Professional women’s golf competition, part of the Ladies European Tour presented by Public Investment Fund (PIF)

LIV Golf Investments Ltd

Company # 136610 – Jersey

Registered 30/06/2021

Prior name: Performance54i Limited

More info

Special resolution 7 October 2021 share capital US $1,169,000,147.50


  • Performance54 Group Ltd – 4,500 Ordinary B shares
  • The Public Investment Fund – 95,500 Ordinary A shares
  • The Public Investment Fund – 240,000,000 redeemable non-voting preference shares

Significant person(s) (same as LIV Golf Investments Ltd)

  • Jed Daniel Moore – Director
  • Gregory Norman – Director, CEO
  • H.E Mr. Yasir Othman H. Alrumayyan – Director, Governor of the PIF
  • Andrew Nicholas Liveris – Director 
  • Majed Mohamed Al Sorour – Director, Employee at PIF
  • Brian Patrick Gillespie – Director, Employee at PIF
  • Mohannad Alblehed – Director, Employee at PIF
  • Zedra Corporate Officers (Jersey) Limited
  • Zedra Directors (Jersey) Limited
LIV Golf Holdings Ltd

Company # 136131 – Jersey

Registered 11/06/2021

More info

Significant person(s) (same as LIV Golf Investments Ltd)

  • Jed Daniel Moore – Director
  • Gregory Norman – Director, CEO
  • H.E Mr. Yasir Othman H. Alrumayyan – Director, Governor of the PIF
  • Andrew Nicholas Liveris – Director 
  • Majed Mohamed Al Sorour – Director, Employee at PIF
  • Brian Patrick Gillespie – Director, Employee at PIF
  • Mohannad Alblehed – Director, Employee at PIF
  • Zedra Corporate Officers (Jersey) Limited
  • Zedra Directors (Jersey) Limited
LIV Golf Incorporated

Company # F21000007056 – Florida, US

Incorporated on 9 Dec 2021

More info

Directors / Officers

LIV Golf Ltd

Company # 13473438 – U.K.

Prior name Performance54i (UK) Ltd

Incorporated on 23 June 2021

More info

C/O Zedra, Booths Hall Booths Park 3, Chelford Road, Knutsford, England, WA16 8GS

Performance54 Group Limited

Company # 13167959 – U.K.

Incorporated on 29 January 2021

More info

Directors / Officers

Performance54 Limited

Company # 09541377 – U.K.

Incorporated on 14 April 2015

Nature of business: advertising agencies

More info

Donald Trump
Donald Trump Small Headshot vis Wikipedia
Ziad El Chaar

Chief Executive Quara Holding, parent of Dar Al Arkan and former executive at Damac which worked with Trump on golf project in Dubai

Dar Al Arkan

$1.6 Billion Real Estate Project

Trump Org licensing deal for undisclosed amount

Trump Family Signs Deal With Saudi Real Estate Developer, The New York Times

More info

  • The Trump Organization will license its name for an undisclosed amount, renewing questions about Trump mixing politics and business as starts his campaign for the 2024 presidential election.
  • Trump Organization signed a branding license deal with Saudi Arabian real estate company Dar Al Arkan as part of a $1.6 billion project called ‘Aida’ that includes estimated 3,500 residential units, luxury retail and 450 hotel rooms.
  • “Executives involved in the project include Ziad El Chaar, the chief executive of Quara Holding, the conglomerate whose holdings include Dar Al Arkan. Mr. El Chaar used to work at a real estate company that teamed up with the Trump family for a golf project in Dubai.”
  • Read the full New York Times story

(Note: this section on Dar Al Arkan deal was added to this chart on November 18, 2022)

  • Update 4/1/23: In addition to these investments from Saudi Arabia, a March 30, 2023 New York Times story reported that the United Arab Emirates has invested over $200 million in Kushner’s Affinity Partners through a sovereign wealth fund and a Qatari entity invested a similar sum.

Trump, Kushner and Saudi Arabia: links and notes

Note: The links below are provided as reference information for context and additional sources of research for the data in the chart. Most of the bullets are quotes from the articles or summarized highlights. The chart and the information below may be updated periodically.

Jared Kushner and LIV Golf

Sources: LIV Golf nearing deal to buy time on Fox Sports to air its tournaments (Golfweek September 27, 2022)

  • “LIV Golf is nearing a deal to purchase air time for its tournaments on U.S. cable television, multiple sources have told Golfweek. The potential agreement — which is still being finalized — is with Fox Sports 1.”
  • “A well-placed industry executive says LIV struck out with approaches to multiple broadcasters, including NBC, CBS, Disney, Apple and Amazon, and that Fox Sports got involved only at the behest of Lachlan Murdoch, the executive chairman and CEO of Fox Corp. Last month, Sports Business Journal reported that Jared Kushner, the son-in-law of Donald Trump, had been calling broadcasters trying to generate interest in a LIV television package. In 2021, Kushner’s private equity firm, Affinity Partners, secured $2 billion in funding from the Saudi Public Investment Fund.”

Jared Kushner’s LIV Golf connection (SBJ Sports Business Journal August 15, 2022)

  • “Trump’s son-in-law tried to jump-start LIV media talks – Jared Kushner, the son-in-law of former President Donald Trump, called on one of his U.S. media connections to try to help the controversial Saudi-backed LIV Golf tour secure a media rights deal.”
  • “Earlier this month, soon after LIV’s event at the Trump-owned golf course in Bedminster, N.J., Kushner called one of the top execs at Paramount, which owns CBS, to try to jump-start negotiations. The former senior White House adviser was not working for LIV in an official capacity, according to a source familiar with the call.”

Donald Trump, Saudia Arabia and LIV Golf

LIV, the Saudis and Performance54 (MySpyGolf September 12, 2022 by John Barra)

  • “Several weeks ago, YouTube channel posted a series of videos detailing a spider’s web of connections between three high-profile YouTube golf content creators/influencers and Saudi business interests. The three YouTube/social media personalities named were Rick Shiels, Peter Finch and the Jazzy Golfer, all based in the UK. Everything in PNUK’s videos was public information and readily verifiable on the Gov.UK Companies House website. Despite that fact, all of the videos were taken down by YouTube following defamation complaints (you can watch an overview here).”
  • “At the center of the web is a company called Performance54.”
  • “Established in 2015, Performance54 is a high-powered golf-specific public relations, marketing and management firm. Performance54 is relatively unknown in the U.S. but has become a global golf mover and shaker. The company has offices throughout the Middle East and Asia and opened operations in North America this year.”
  • “In January of this year, Performance54 Group Limited issued a new Confirmation Statement. The new ownership structure shows a total of 10,001 shares. The Sanabil Private Equity Investments Company owns 5,001 shares.”
  • “Sanabil Private Equity Investments is based in Saudi Arabia. According to its website, Sanabil invests up to $2 billion annually all over the globe. Abdullah Abduljabbar is listed on Sanabil’s website as CEO. Sanabil’s board chairman is Yasir Bin Othman Al-Rumayyan.” 

The inside story of LIV Golf vs. the PGA Tour: Money, innovation and loyalty (Golf September 8, 2022)

  • “On May 10, a month before LIV’s first scheduled event, Norman announced that LIV had received an additional $2 billion in funding from the PIF, a sum that allowed them to make offers that some players would not be able to refuse.”

Blood, Oil and Golf: The emergence of LIV Golf highlights the Kingdom’s troubling influence (Golf Digest August 19, 2022 by Alan Shipnuck, first published via Fire Pit Collective)

  • Both PGL (Premier Golf League created in 2019) and SGL (Saudi Golf League) are trying to woo players from established PGA Tour
  • “Approached by Al-Rumayyan himself, Jack Nicklaus is currently building his first Middle East course outside of Riyadh, which led recently to a rah-rah article in Golf Magazine, which is owned by the same banking conglomerate as the Nicklaus Companies. At the inaugural Saudi Golf Summit in 2020, Gary Player and Greg Norman were among the speakers.”
  • “In October 2018, Khashoggi—a longtime critic of the House of Saud—was lured to the Saudi consulate in Istanbul, where he was killed and dismembered. American intelligence services would determine that Saudi crown prince Mohammed bin Salman approved the operation.”
  • “The legal system remains the only recourse for holding Saudi Arabia culpable for its role in 9/11. KSM, Saudi citizen Mustafa al-Hawsawi and three others are scheduled to finally go on trial later this year at the U.S. military prison at Guantánamo Bay for their role in orchestrating the attacks. It’s farcical that it’s taken this long but finally getting to trial will be a meaningful victory for the surviving families. Money, oil and state-sponsored secrecy allowed the Saudis to skate for nearly two decades. With justice finally looming, and more secrets likely to be revealed, the House of Saud has potentially found a new way to launder its reputation: the Saudi Golf League. The best players in the world now must ask themselves how much money will it take for them to become willing accomplices.”

The Battle for the Soul of Golf (Foreign Policy August 9, 2022)

  • “There are lots of things one might say about the new Saudi-sponsored LIV Golf tour, a blatant attempt to “sportswash” the kingdom’s shaky public image.”
  • “For those of you who don’t pay any attention to sports, the LIV Golf tour is a new set of golf tournaments backed by the Saudi sovereign wealth fund. It has enticed a number of famous professionals to enter its events by offering big upfront payments to established stars, promising big purses to the winners, and guaranteeing that all participants will take home a sizable paycheck even if they finish dead last. In response, the PGA Tour and other prominent golf organizations (including the R&A Association, which operates the British Open) have declared that those who join the LIV tour will be ineligible for existing tour events.”

Donald Trump’s relationship with LIV Golf is off to a big start — and could get even bigger (Insider August 2, 2022)

  • Trump, Tucker Carlson, and Marjorie Taylor Greene laughing as the crowd at the LIV Golf Invitational chants, “Let’s go Brandon.” (from @patriottakes on twitter)
  • “LIV Golf is backed by Saudi Arabia’s Public Investment Fund, one of the world’s largest sovereign wealth funds with an estimated $620 billion in assets under management. The emergence of the league has been assessed by many as a practice in sportswashing, wherein Saudi Arabia is attempting to launder its reputation on the international stage through the public’s love of sport. If that is their goal, Trump has already proven a useful ally.”
  • “Further, in addition to LIV’s commitment to Trump, Saudi Arabia’s PIF also put $2 billion into Jared Kushner’s private equity firm. With the PIF already so committed to financing one project close to Trump, it’s possible that more could follow.”

LIV Golf as It Looked Inside Trumpworld (Wall Street Journal July 31, 2022)

  • “Former President Donald Trump is the Saudi-backed golf upstart’s host this weekend. Tickets this weekend start at $1 on StubHub.”
  • Photo shows Yasir Al-Rumayyan, who governs the Saudi sovereign-wealth fund with Trump, Don Jr, players – July 29, 2022

LIV Golf’s latest stop brings together Trump, Saudi Arabia and plenty of criticism (Guardian July 29, 2022)

  • Sportswashing or sports laundering of KSA’s human rights record:
    • Saudi Arabia’s role in the 9/11 attacks (15 of the 19 al Qaeda terrorists who hijacked plans on 9/11 were Saudi nationals)
    • 2018 murder of Washington Post journalist and U.S. resident Jamal Khashoggi
    • repression of women’s and LGBTQ+ rights
  • Days after Jan 6 attack on the U.S. Capitol – the PGA of America announced it was stripping Bedminster of the 2022 US PGA Championship. Now Trump is promoting LIV against the PGA Tour.
  • “It remains unclear how much the former president’s company will earn for hosting this week’s event and LIV Golf’s October season finale at Doral, another Trump club outside Miami, but the move has attracted plenty of criticism.”

Trump world reaches out to 9/11 families on eve of their LIV golf protest (Politico July 24, 2022)

  • “Dozens of family members and survivors of the Sept. 11 terrorist attack will head to former President Donald Trump’s Bedminster golf club next week to protest the controversial Saudi-backed LIV Golf event there.”
  • “The protest places yet another unfavorable spotlight on what has become a source of sharp criticism for Trump. His and his family’s ties to the Saudis and his association with LIV has come against the backdrop of a renewed push for the U.S. to more fully distance itself from the country over its human rights record. President Joe Biden himself faced recent criticism for visiting Saudi Arabia after vowing to make the nation a “pariah.””
  • “The tournament that is set to kick off on Friday at Trump National Golf Course in Bedminster is LIV’s second U.S event. The tour is backed by the Public Investment Fund, Saudi Arabia’s sovereign wealth fund that is chaired by Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, who U.S. intel has blamed for the gruesome death of a Washington Post columnist. It has not been without controversy since its inception. Critics of the LIV Invitational Series say it is an attempt by the Saudis to “sports-wash” their record on human rights.”

Revealed: Newcastle chairman’s links to Saudi ‘anti-corruption’ drive (The Guardian October 16, 2021 by Stephanie Kirchgaessner)

  • Court documents shed new light on Yasir al-Rumayyan’s relationship with Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman
  • “Yasir al-Rumayyan, the new non-executive chairman of Newcastle United, was involved in a controversial “anti-corruption” campaign in Saudi Arabia that included the transfer of assets on behalf of the crown prince, Mohammed bin Salman.”
  • “Internal Saudi documents filed to a civil court in Canada as part of an unrelated case show that in 2017 a close aide to Prince Mohammed ordered Rumayyan – who is formally referred to in memos as “his excellency” and the “supervisor” of the PIF – to transfer 20 companies to the sovereign wealth fund as part of the anti-corruption campaign.”
  • “One of 20 seized companies, the documents show, was a charter jet company that was later alleged to have been used in the Saudi plot to kill Jamal Khashoggi. US intelligence agencies concluded in an intelligence report that was declassified in February that Prince Mohammed approved Khashoggi’s gruesome murder.”
  • “Rumayyan is a former banker who serves as governor of the PIF and chairman of the oil firm Saudi Aramco. He has overseen billions of dollars in investment by the PIF, including in Uber, Facebook, Disney and Citibank.”

Jared Kushner’s Affinity Partners investment fund and Saudi Arabia

Jared Kushner signs his first big private equity deal (Axios July 1, 2022)

  • “Affinity Partners, the private equity firm formed last year by former President Trump’s son-in-law Jared Kushner, has agreed to invest in Mosaic, an Oakland, Calif.-based fintech company that provides loans for residential solar installations. This would be the first major deal for Affinity, which has raised more than $3 billion for its debut fund.”
  • Solar Mosaic LLC – California
    • “Mosaic is said to be raising more than $200 million in Series D funding at a valuation north of $1 billion. Affinity is co-leading the round, which is expected to close later this quarter, alongside J. Safra Sarasin.”
    • “There’s talk that existing Mosaic investor Warburg Pincus may sell some of its stake into the deal, but still would be expected to remain the company’s largest outside shareholder.”
    • “JPMorgan and Citigroup are managing the process for Mosaic, which says it’s funded more than $8 billion in solar and sustainable home improvement loans since inception in 2010.”

Jared Kushner’s investment firm draws House Oversight scrutiny (The Real Deal June 3, 2022)

Jared Kushner’s New Fund Plans to Invest Saudi Money in Israel (Wall Street Journal May 8, 2022)

  • Saudi Arabia’s sovereign-wealth fund committed $2 billion to Kushner’s Affinity Partners, agreeing to allow investment in Israeli firms for the first time
  • “Israel is deepening business and security ties with Arab states, including the United Arab Emirates, nearly two years after the U.S. brokered historic normalization deals. Mr. Kushner, former President Donald Trump’s son-in-law and a former senior White House adviser, played an instrumental role in the so-called Abraham Accords. He has also established strong ties with Saudi Arabia’s Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman, the kingdom’s de facto ruler. Since leaving the White House, Mr. Kushner has tapped his White House contacts across the Middle East to develop his private-equity firm, a venture likely to earn him lucrative fees regardless of the success or failure of its investments.”
  • “Even before the accords, the U.A.E. allowed access to its market to Israeli companies with operations out of other countries. The Persian Gulf state is now able to make direct investments itself in Israel and has done deals. Abu Dhabi’s Mubadala Investment Co., which manages $250 billion in assets, invested up to $20 million in six Israeli-based or focused venture-capital firms. Another Abu Dhabi sovereign-wealth fund, ADQ, led a $105 million investment into Aleph Farms, an Israeli firm that makes lab-grown meat.”

Before Giving Billions to Jared Kushner, Saudi Investment Fund Had Big Doubts (New York Times April 10, 2022)

  • “Before committing $2 billion to Mr. Kushner’s fledgling firm, officials at a fund led by the Saudi crown prince questioned taking such a big risk.”
  • “The five-member board investment committee evaluating Mr. Kushner’s proposal referred to it with the code name Project Astro. The panel was led by Yasir al-Rumayyan, a Harvard Business School graduate who is also chairman of Saudi Aramco, the state-owned oil giant. The panel also included Andrew Liveris, the Australian-born former chief executive of the Dow Chemical Company, and Ayman al-Sayari, the vice chairman of the Saudi Central Bank.”

U.A.E. Just Invested $100 Million in Israel’s Tech Sector as Both Countries Get Closer (Wall Street Journal January 14, 2022)

  • “Abu Dhabi’s Mubadala Investment Co., which manages $250 billion in assets, invested up to $20 million in six Israeli-based or focused venture capital firms, including Mangrove Capital Partners, Entrée Capital, Aleph Capital, Viola Ventures, Pitango and MizMaa, according to a spokeswoman.”

Jared Kushner wants to Trump-proof his private equity future (Axios January 20, 2022)

  • “Before Kushner opened shop, former Treasury Secretary Steve Mnuchin founded Liberty Strategic Capital.”
  • “It currently has around 20 staffers, nearly half of whom are investors. This includes partners Asad Naqvi, previously with London-based buyout firm Apis, Bret Pearlman, the former Blackstone and Elevation Partners exec who most recently was working for Josh Harris’ family office.”

Jared Kushner’s Investment Firm Hires Former Trump Staffers (Bloomberg January 19, 2022)

  • “Kushner hired private equity veterans Bret Pearlman and Asad Naqvi to select investments and negotiate deals for the Sunny Isles Beach, Florida-based firm.”
  • “Ian Brekke, who served as deputy general counsel and acting general counsel of the Department of Homeland Security under Trump, replaced Nicholas Butterfield as compliance officer in December. Butterfield, a former deputy White House policy coordinator, still works for the firm.”
  • “John Rader, who worked on U.S. trade relations with Mexico and Canada for the Trump administration, became Affinity Partners’ chief operating officer in September, the filing shows.”
  • “Chad Mizelle, a former assistant counsel to the President, has also been hired, the person said.”
  • “Lauren Key, who most recently was as a managing director at Orion Energy Partners, joined Affinity Partners as chief financial officer in October.”

A FIN MANAGEMENT LLC – SEC Advisor Report 3/31/2022

  • CRD Number: 315482
  • SEC file number 801-122021
  • 786-288-0143
  • Administrator – SEI Investments Company, Oaks PA

A FIN MANAGEMENT LLC – Investment Advisor Firm summary (as of September 18, 2022)

  • AFFINITY PARTNERS PARALLEL FUND I LP Cayman Islands – $2,539,486,916 – 2 clients
  • Jared Corey Kushner – founder and CEO
  • John Noel Rader – COO
  • Lauren Elise Key – CFO
  • Joseph Ian Brekke – Chief Compliance Officer
  • Chad Robert Mizelle – General counsel

A Fin Management LLC Assets, Funds, Holdings – 13F (as of September 18, 2022)

A Fin Management LLC  – Open Corporates

A Fin Management – Florida filing

  • 2301 Laguna Circle #1802 North Miami, FL 33181
  • 2021 filing signed by: Andrew Berman 
  • Andrew Berman – Associate Real Estate Counsel Kushner Companies Dec 2016 – Mar 2022 (LinkedIn)
  • 2022 filing – Cassidy Luna Chief of Staff, Lauren Key CFO
  • 16690 Sunny Isles Blvd Sunny Isles Beach, FL 33160
  • COO John Noel Rader (Openpayrolls) – National Security Council (NSC) 2017-2019 – Paid $142,591
    • July 2016 – Rader is counsel to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, to Chairman Bob Corker
    • Chief of Staff (Jan-Aug 2021) Sen Bill Hagerty R-TN (Legitstorm)
    • 2020-2021 WH under Trump (LinkedIn)

Other links (Saudi Arabia, Kushner, Khashoggi, Russia, Mnuchin)

Trump Treasury Secretary Mnuchin Raises $2.5 Billion Fund (Bloomberg September 20, 2021)

  • Mnuchin’s Liberty Strategic Capital to focus on tech, fintech
  • Investors include Saudi Arabia’s Public Investment Fund

Russia Saudi Investment Fund

  • RSIF Cyprus Holding Limited
  • Russia Saudi Investment Fund – 2015 wayback machine RDIF site
    • SAUDI SOVEREIGN FUND TO INVEST $10B IN RUSSIA (Gulf News, 07.07.2015)
    • “First seven projects receive preliminary approval, with another 10 expected to be closed by year-end. Saudi Arabia’s sovereign wealth fund has agreed to invest $10 billion (Dh36.7 billion) in Russia, in a powerful sign of the rapprochement between Moscow and Riyadh. The Public Investment Fund (PIF) signed a deal with the Russian Direct Investment Fund (RDIF) for the largest foreign direct investment yet in Russia, RDIF said late on Monday.”

Russian sovereign fund opens office in Saudi (Reuters 2019)

  • “The Russian Direct Investment Fund (RDIF), Russia’s sovereign wealth fund, has opened its first foreign office in Saudi Arabia”
  • “RDIF and PIF also cooperate under the aegis of the Russian-Saudi Energy Investment platform established together with state-owned oil company Saudi Aramco, and the $1 billion Russian-Saudi platform for investments in the technology sector.”
  • “The two sides have approved more than 25 joint projects with a total investment of over $2.5 billion across various sectors of the economy, while RDIF and Saudi Aramco are also considering numerous projects in the oil services sector, the statement said.”

The Saudi crown prince just made a very risky power play (Washington Post November 5, 2017)

  • “Saudi Arabia’s Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman says he’s cracking down on corruption. But the sweeping arrests of cabinet ministers and senior princes Saturday night looked to many astonished Arab observers like a bold but risky consolidation of power.”
  • “It was probably no accident that last month, Jared Kushner, Trump’s senior adviser and son-in-law, made a personal visit to Riyadh. The two princes are said to have stayed up until nearly 4 a.m. several nights, swapping stories and planning strategy.”

Declassified report on Saudi role in killing of Jamal Khashoggi (CNN February 26, 2021)

Assessing the Saudi Government’s Role in the Killing of Jamal Khashoggi (Office of the Director of National Intelligence February 11, 2021)


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